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Bootstrap 4 - Grid System



Description

Bootstrap 4 grid system built with flexbox which is fully responsive and scales up to 12 columns (according to the size of device) by creating layout with rows and columns across the page. It provides responsive, mobile first fluid grid system which scales the columns as the device or viewport size increases.

Working of Grid System

  • Rows must be placed within a .container class for proper alignment and padding.

  • For responsive width use .container class and for fixed width across all viewport, use the .container-fluid class.

  • Use rows to create horizontal groups of columns.

  • Content should be placed within the columns, and only columns may be the immediate children of rows.

  • Columns contain padding for controlling the space between them.

  • If you place more than 12 columns in a row, then the columns will be placed in a new line.

  • Columns create gaps between column content via padding. Therefore, you can remove the margin from rows and padding from columns with .no-gutters class on the row.

  • You can make grid system responsive by using five grid breakpoints such as extra small, small, medium, large, and extra large.

  • Predefined grid classes like .col-4 are available for quickly making grid layouts. LESS mixins can also be used for more semantic layouts.

Grid Options

The following table summarizes aspects of how Bootstrap 4 grid system works across multiple devices −

Extra small devices (<576px) Small devices (≥576px) Medium devices (≥768px) Large devices (≥992px) Extra Large devices (≥1200px)
Grid behavior Horizontal at all times Collapsed to start, horizontal above breakpoints Collapsed to start, horizontal above breakpoints Collapsed to start, horizontal above breakpoints Collapsed to start, horizontal above breakpoints
Max container width None (auto) 540px 720px 960px 1140px
Class classes .col- .col-sm- .col-md- .col-lg- .col-xl-
# of columns 12 12 12 12 12
Gutter width

30px

(15px on each side of a column)

30px

(15px on each side of a column)

30px

(15px on each side of a column)

30px

(15px on each side of a column)

30px

(15px on each side of a column)

Nestable Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Column ordering Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Basic Grid Structure

Following is basic structure of Bootstrap 4 grid −

<div class = "container">
   <div class = "row">
      <div class = "col-*-*"></div>
      <div class = "col-*-*"></div>
   </div>
   
   <div class = "row">
      <div class = "col-*-*"></div>
      <div class = "col-*-*"></div>
      <div class = "col-*-*"></div>	  
   </div>
   
   <div class = "row">...</div>
</div>

Example of Grid System

Following is an example of Bootstrap 4 grid system −

Example

<html lang = "en">
   <head>
      <!-- Meta tags -->
      <meta charset = "utf-8">
      <meta name = "viewport" content = "width = device-width, initial-scale = 1, shrink-to-fit = no">
      
      <!-- Bootstrap CSS -->
      <link rel = "stylesheet" 
         href = "https://stackpath.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.1.3/css/bootstrap.min.css" 
         integrity = "sha384-MCw98/SFnGE8fJT3GXwEOngsV7Zt27NXFoaoApmYm81iuXoPkFOJwJ8ERdknLPMO" 
         crossorigin = "anonymous">
      <title>Bootstrap 4 Example</title>
      </style>
         .grid_system  div[class^="col"] {
            border: 1px solid white;
            background: #e4dcdc;
            text-align: center;
            padding-top: 5px;
            padding-bottom: 5px
         }
      </style>
   </head>
   
   <body>
      <div class = "grid_system">
         <div class = "row">
            <div class = "col-sm-1">.col-sm-1</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-1">.col-sm-1</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-1">.col-sm-1</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-1">.col-sm-1</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-1">.col-sm-1</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-1">.col-sm-1</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-1">.col-sm-1</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-1">.col-sm-1</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-1">.col-sm-1</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-1">.col-sm-1</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-1">.col-sm-1</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-1">.col-sm-1</div>
         </div>
         
         <div class = "row">
            <div class = "col-sm-3">.col-sm-3</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-3">.col-sm-3</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-3">.col-sm-3</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-3">.col-sm-3</div>
         </div>
         
         <div class = "row">
            <div class = "col-sm-4">.col-sm-4</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-4">.col-sm-4</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-4">.col-sm-4</div>
         </div>
         
         <div class = "row">
            <div class =" col-sm-3">.col-sm-3</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-3">.col-sm-3</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-6">.col-sm-6</div>
         </div>
         
         <div class = "row">
            <div class = "col-sm-5">.col-sm-5</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-7">.col-sm-7</div>
         </div>
         
         <div class = "row">
            <div class = "col-sm-6">.col-sm-6</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-6">.col-sm-6</div>
         </div>
         
         <div class = "row">
            <div class = "col-sm-12">.col-sm-12</div>
         </div>
      </div>
      
      <!-- jQuery first, then Popper.js, then Bootstrap JS -->
      <script src = "https://code.jquery.com/jquery-3.3.1.slim.min.js"
         integrity = "sha384-q8i/X+965DzO0rT7abK41JStQIAqVgRVzpbzo5smXKp4YfRvH+8abtTE1Pi6jizo" 
         crossorigin = "anonymous">
      </script>
      
      <script src = "https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/popper.js/1.14.3/umd/popper.min.js" 
         integrity = "sha384-ZMP7rVo3mIykV+2+9J3UJ46jBk0WLaUAdn689aCwoqbBJiSnjAK/l8WvCWPIPm49" 
         crossorigin = "anonymous">
      </script>
      
      <script src = "https://stackpath.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.1.3/js/bootstrap.min.js" 
         integrity = "sha384-ChfqqxuZUCnJSK3+MXmPNIyE6ZbWh2IMqE241rYiqJxyMiZ6OW/JmZQ5stwEULTy" 
         crossorigin = "anonymous">
      </script>
      
   </body>
</html>

It will produce the following result −

Output

Creating Two Column Layouts

The following example describes creating two column layouts for small, medium and large devices. On small devices such as mobile phones, columns will automatically become horizontal as default.

Example

<html lang = "en">
   <head>
      <!-- Meta tags -->
      <meta charset = "utf-8">
      <meta name = "viewport" content = "width = device-width, initial-scale = 1, shrink-to-fit = no">
      
      <!-- Bootstrap CSS -->
      <link rel = "stylesheet" href = "https://stackpath.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.1.3/css/bootstrap.min.css" 
         integrity = "sha384-MCw98/SFnGE8fJT3GXwEOngsV7Zt27NXFoaoApmYm81iuXoPkFOJwJ8ERdknLPMO" 
         crossorigin = "anonymous">
      <title>Bootstrap 4 Example</title>
   </head>
   
   <body>
      <div class = "grid_system">
         <div class = "row">
            <div class = "col-sm-6">.col-sm-6</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-6">.col-sm-6</div>
         </div>
         
         <div class = "row">
            <div class = "col-sm-7">.col-sm-7</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-5">.col-sm-5</div>
         </div>
         
         <div class = "row">
            <div class = "col-sm-4">.col-sm-4</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-8">.col-sm-8</div>
         </div>
		 
         <div class = "row">
            <div class = "col-sm-9">.col-sm-9</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-3">.col-sm-3</div>
         </div>
      </div>
      
      <!-- jQuery first, then Popper.js, then Bootstrap JS -->
      <script src = "https://code.jquery.com/jquery-3.3.1.slim.min.js" 
         integrity = "sha384-q8i/X+965DzO0rT7abK41JStQIAqVgRVzpbzo5smXKp4YfRvH+8abtTE1Pi6jizo" 
         crossorigin = "anonymous">
      </script>
      
      <script src = "https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/popper.js/1.14.3/umd/popper.min.js" 
         integrity = "sha384-ZMP7rVo3mIykV+2+9J3UJ46jBk0WLaUAdn689aCwoqbBJiSnjAK/l8WvCWPIPm49" 
         crossorigin = "anonymous">
      </script>
      
      <script src = "https://stackpath.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.1.3/js/bootstrap.min.js" 
         integrity = "sha384-ChfqqxuZUCnJSK3+MXmPNIyE6ZbWh2IMqE241rYiqJxyMiZ6OW/JmZQ5stwEULTy" 
         crossorigin = "anonymous">
      </script>
      
   </body>
</html>

It will produce the following result −

Output

Creating Three Column Layouts

The following example describes creating three column layouts for medium and large devices. If the screen resolution is more than or equal to 992 pixels, then it will display in landscape mode in tablets and as usual, it will display in portrait mode.

Example

<html lang = "en">
   <head>
      <!-- Meta tags -->
      <meta charset = "utf-8">
      <meta name = "viewport" content = "width = device-width, initial-scale = 1, shrink-to-fit = no">
      
      <!-- Bootstrap CSS -->
      <link rel = " stylesheet" href = " https://stackpath.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.1.3/css/bootstrap.min.css" 
         integrity = "sha384-MCw98/SFnGE8fJT3GXwEOngsV7Zt27NXFoaoApmYm81iuXoPkFOJwJ8ERdknLPMO"
         crossorigin = "anonymous">
      <title>Bootstrap 4 Example</title>
   </head>
   
   <body>
      <div class = "grid_system">
         <div class = "row">
            <div class = "col-sm-4">.col-sm-4</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-4">.col-sm-4</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-4">.col-sm-4</div>
         </div>
         
         <div class = "row">
            <div class = "col-sm-3">.col-sm-3</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-4">.col-sm-4</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-5">.col-sm-5</div>
         </div>
         
         <div class = "row">
            <div class = "col-sm-2">.col-sm-2</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-8">.col-sm-8</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-2">.col-sm-2</div>
         </div>
		
         <div class = "row">
            <div class = "col-sm-2">.col-sm-2</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-3">.col-sm-3</div>
            <div class = "col-sm-7">.col-sm-7</div>
         </div>
      </div>
      
      <!-- jQuery first, then Popper.js, then Bootstrap JS -->
      <script src = "https://code.jquery.com/jquery-3.3.1.slim.min.js" 
         integrity = "sha384-q8i/X+965DzO0rT7abK41JStQIAqVgRVzpbzo5smXKp4YfRvH+8abtTE1Pi6jizo" 
         crossorigin = "anonymous">
      </script>
      
      <script src = "https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/popper.js/1.14.3/umd/popper.min.js" 
         integrity = "sha384-ZMP7rVo3mIykV+2+9J3UJ46jBk0WLaUAdn689aCwoqbBJiSnjAK/l8WvCWPIPm49" 
         crossorigin = "anonymous">
      </script>
      
      <script src = "https://stackpath.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.1.3/js/bootstrap.min.js" 
         integrity = "sha384-ChfqqxuZUCnJSK3+MXmPNIyE6ZbWh2IMqE241rYiqJxyMiZ6OW/JmZQ5stwEULTy" 
         crossorigin = "anonymous">
      </script>
      
   </body>
</html>

It will produce the following result −

Output